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Enhancing managerial feedback and coaching is a process informed and driven in part by training and development, in part through feedback, and in part by reinforcement or rewards tied to excellence as a coach. It leverages many of the lessons and skills practiced by both external and internal coaches. The focus of managers when observing and evaluating performance shifts from a "mold and shape" view towards a "listen and guide" methodology. The coaching behaviors themselves are thought of more as "little c" (performance and goals) coaching, versus "big C" (employee choice and development) coaching as is found with executive or leadership coaching.
Regardless of whether the performance management process involves frequent (weekly, monthly) discussions, or remains an annual or quarterly event, the role of a manager remains constant. A manager's responsibilities always include a certain level of both direct and indirect observation of an employee's work processes, interactions and collaboration with others, and work output. The inclusion of "indirect" observation points to a manager's responsibility to request formal feedback from other managers and leaders who have had the opportunity to either directly guide or observe the work behaviors and outcomes of the employee.